Wednesday, May 7, 2008

Illegitimate Muslim children and JPN

After readinga a letter to Malaysiakini, JPN on the look-out for illegitimate Malay children by Dr. Yati Hewitt' and a reply by Joseph Paul in voxpopuli, i think I need to say something about this. This is my reply to Malaysiakini :


Islam rules that any child born out of wedlock cannot use 'Bin' or 'binti' of the husband of the mother. The child must have 'bin Abdullah' in his/her name instead. It is a religious matter, thus the JPN ruling is just following the Islamic rules and applies only to Muslims in this country.

From Dr. Yati Hewitt's letter, there was no mention that the child was denied a birth certificate, but only at the father's name it was written as "bin Abdullah'. If the child was born as early birth, the couple must inform the registration department about it, and if possible a letter from the doctor can be attached.

There is a law that "requires that the parents should be legally married before they can have a child" for Muslims in this country. It is called the Islamic Law and Muslims marriage fall under Islamic law jurisprudence in this country, not civil law.

I feel sad to read comments by non Muslims on this matter published in Malaysiakini as it indicates, there was no efforts from them to check first before making a comment which sometimes can be interpretd as trying to meddle in the Islamic/Muslims affairs.

24 comments:

Puteri said...

You feel sad, but what about the anguish of the children who have been stigmatized? Esp when the parents of the children were legally married, for e.g. married outside of Malaysia?

Since when did documents/certificates issued by JPN have to comply with Islamic family law?

What is apparent here is that the JPN has exceeded its authority by issuing that internal circular, circumventing the existing law with regards to registration of births!

Anak Perelih said...

Putri,

What will happened if the child (a girl) want to get married when at that time she know that his father cannot be her 'wali' to marry her? What is her feeling at that time when she kenw she is an illegitimate in front of everybody? Having Bin/Binti Abdullah doesn't means she/he is an illegitimate as many muslims name is Abdullah including our own PM... (Is Nori Binti Abdullah is an illegitimate??? No lah) anyway many people remarries after devorce or death. BTW.. it's not a "XXXX bin/binti Tidak Diketahui)

Those who married outside Malaysia can apply marriage certificate at the Jabatan Agama after they came back to the country. Those married in 'Sempadan Siam' too was issued by certificate by Jabatan Agama Islam in southern Thailand. So does who married in UK or US or Australia... they have Islamic bodies there too and these couple can apply Malaysian cert after coming back to MAlaysia. I had many friends married in US,UK while studying and having kids there came back and facing no problem here in registering their children at JPN

JPN did not exceeded its authority, but just want to protect itself from troubles that may arise in the future if there was no such regulations. And having to get involved with Muslims on matters related to Islam, the department had to respect the Islamic regulations.... and i think the circular did not at any point be incontrast with any law or Malaysian constitutions... BTW.. it didn't involve non muslims as there was no such regulations in other religions.

Anonymous said...

Puteri, please understand from anak perelih point of view, i.e. Moslems should not give a shit to bastard moslem child!!

And for those children whose fathers name are "Abdullah", well just too darned bad

UmaR rentaka said...

Ah.... what a wonderful feeling being a Hindu.
My religion says that if a man married a pregnant lady, the child is his. Period. He becomes the child's legitimate father.

Azrul Mohd Khalib said...

Anak Perelih,

If you were more observant, you would note that Dr. Yati (who is a Muslim by the way) indicated in her letter that "In the space for father's particulars shall be written 'Information not Available'. In the baby's MyKid identity card shall be entered baby's name followed by ‘bin or binti Abdullah’."

A birth certificate that has "information not available" in place of a father is a dead giveaway and a recipe for stigma and discrimination which will be faced by the child for at least 12 years of his or her life.

I am a Muslim and I am sick and tired of supposedly secular bodies (i.e. JPN) acting as moral guardians for Muslims/Malays which is neither in their mandate nor responsibility given to them. I agree with Puteri.

Who are they to do calculations as to when this couple had sex and conceived this baby? There is a biological mother and there is a biological father. Show me where it says that on the circular they have to determine the point of conceivement and I will point out to you that this action will not only be illegal under the law but against the Convention of the Rights of the Child of which Malaysia is a signatory.

Bukan Ustadz berkata said...

Anak yang di lahir dari zina sebenarnya tidak boleh di gelar Anak Haram.

Dia hanya cuma anak yang di lahir di luar nikah dan tidak mendapat habuan dari peninggalan harta.

Bolehkah ayahnya atau ibunya memberi HIBAH [gift] semasa mereka hidup ?

Perbuatan haram oleh pasangan ibu-bapa itu tidak seharusnya di jatuhkan kepada anak kelahiran mereka.

Dia tetap ANAK pada ibu-bapa dari pandangan biologi dan genes.

Jangan hanya ambil pandangan Fiqh dari satu mahzab sahaja ... cuba lihat pandangan Fiqh dari mahzab lain Malek, Hanafi, Hanbali, Jaafari

Serious Shepherd said...

Then:
Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Now:
Thou shalt commit adultery or thou shalt be bombed back to Stone Age.

JPN rulings only involves Muslims thus non-Muslims should not interfere. The inteference only makes the Muslims to assume that in other religion semua boleh, thus Muslims ended up serving beef to Hindus and asking Seventh Day Adventists to come to work on Saturday.

Anak Perelih said...

Azrul...

If the father's identity is not known, then how can we fill in the father's particulars. If the Mother's husband is different than "Abdullah" which is written in the form, how can we put his particulars in the form? We need to put his IC number too...

In Islam, 'Nasab' or 'keturunan' of a person is important as in the future, they have to dealt with marriage (if a girl - the father will be the wali or the wali hakim must be appointed) and inheritance. An illegitimate only can inherit belongings/wealth of his mother's only, not his biological father.

What discrimination did you meant? Not everybody will have access to the child's birth cert. And as a muslim, teachers or any others must understand he or she cannot discriminate the child as the fault is on their parents for committing zina. Except lah if you means non muslims will discriminate these childrens... which I don't believe they're like that.. they're human too and they won't discriminate...

JPN is just a government department and their tasks is to record information as corrent as possible and some of their services such as Mykad and birth cert is being used by religious authority such as Jabatan Agama etc (for nikah cerai, inheritance etc)... which means they , the JPN should be careful and follow rules and regulations set by the religion of the client (a child's parent in this case). So my opinion is, JPN did not act as a moral guardians for Muslims. If they did not do this, issues may arise in the future which JPN will be blamed/accountable for if the information is not correct especially things related to Islam/religious.

Everybody knows, human pregnancy is around 9 months (plus minus as there are early and late birth cases).. JPN need to record correct information as i mentioned above.. If a child is an illegitimate, then they must record the child as an illegitimate and vise versa.. and many couples who commited zina would lie that they did not had committed zina... which resulted to pregnancy and the child's birth.

As a Muslim, you should know about this... why Islam is concern about zina... what's Islamic stance on zina... the difference in status between biological father and father according to Islam... except if you are juat a muslim by name only.

Please point that this practice is illegal under the Malaysian law and Convention of the Rights of the Child...

BTW, many aspect of live does relate to Islamic laws such as nikah kawin, inheritance etc... even if you're in Turkey where it's the home of the secular zealots...

Anak Perelih said...

illegitimate seharusnya di baca sebagai "anak tidak sah taraf"... Perkataan "anak haram" adalah bahasa pasar yang kasar lagi menghina.

Didalam bab pembahagian harta pusaka, anak tidak sah taraf tidak berhak terhadap harta biological father.. kecuali jika diwasiat/hadiah untuknya

Selain dari bab harta pusaka, bab nikah kahwin dan lain lain lagi juga akan timbul dari status anak tidak sah taraf seperti untuk si bapa menjadi wali kepada anak tidak sah taraf perempuannya... beliau tidak boleh jadi wali dan gadis tersebut hendaklah diwalikan dengan wali hakim...

Dari segi biologi, anak tersebut masih tetap anak kedua ibu bapa tersebut.. tapi dari segi Islam, ada aturannya didalam beberapa hal seperti disebut diatas...

Malaysia mengikut mazhab Shafie dan ahli sunnah wal jamaah di Perlis yang sesetengah dari kita menfitnah sebagai pengikut wahabi pun mengikut pandangan ini.

To Serious Shepherd,
a true muslim won't serve beef to hindu... If you interfere with our religion, then we too can interfere with yours.. but that's not a good practice and against islamic teaching... so does to assume "semua boleh" as u mentioned in your post...

Anonymous said...

thank you for your xplaination anak perelih...hopefully you will continue to tell the truth especially to those who do not understand islam but want to be hero and give opinion based on logic, human rigths ets...hopefully you will continue to post comment on haris ibrahim blog bcse he just too much...too far from quran abd hadith...
may ALLAH bless you...tq...

tzarina said...

Anak Haram. Illegitimate Child. Fatherless Child. Sinful Child.

Sounds like Malaysian Society is degrading into oblivion. Regardless of religion, a child is innocent. As adults, our job is to make sure that the child has all the opportunities to live a life to the fullest, without name-calling, bullying and nasty labels. Which in turn affects his/her self-confidence, self-esteem, and future prospects.

It is a sad day when this country can't even protect and love a child.

Good luck Malaysia.

burhanlong said...

I am always curious as to why people who do not profess belief in a particular religion like to meddle in matters related to that religion. To each one of us is our religion. It is only when cross-religious matters arise that we need to seek clarification. Once we have ascribed to a religion, it is our duty to follow it even though in the eyes of others, it seems burdensome. A man who loves hot curry and becomes watery eyed while eating it is enjoying it. To others he seems to be toreturing himself. If we want to question religious things, the list of things are endless - why put flower on graves, why light up candles in vigil (people dead already what?), why pierce body with metal spikes, why beat body with chains, why go round the fire, why circulate the black shrouded building, why deny food, water and sex to the body from dawn to dusk - it's endless. Let us just seek salvation in our own faiths and belief.

In this particular case, let us just stick to the subject matter: the position of children born out of wedlock in a religion called Islam, which is being deliberated by the participants in a sensible manner. Non-Muslims can participate in the discourse, but with responsibility and with the intention of seeking enlightenment.

In my limited knowledge about Islam, the five things that Islam seeks to protect are faith, life, lineage, property, and intelect. All injunctions in this religion revolves around these five gifts.

All children are innocent and this has always been stressed. It is the parent that transgresses and God is All-Forgiving. The need to know lineage is for the purpose of marriage and inheritance. On inheritance, even if the child is born out of wed-lock, there are ways and mechanisms that can be used to bequeth our estate to him/her in Islam. The knowledgable ones will not scream and rant directionlessly. Only the ignorant does.

In karmic sense, life is always fair, but never equal.

Umar Rentaka said...

First of all, there is nothing wrong to state what other religion has to say about a particular event or situation. That's what called inter-faith. Promote better understanding.

Secondly, Jabatan Pendaftaran cannot make a ruling even on Muslims independently. The laws apply to all. If they want to do it, then have a separate registration department for Muslims under the Shariah laws. Then the Muslims can challenge these laws under the Shariah Court.

Anak Perelih said...

Umar rentaka...

Before making comments about other peoples' religion, we should know something about that religion first... if not.. we are making ourselves look like a fool.... Plus, by having some knowledge of the religion we are commenting, it promotes better understanding between religions... but if we do it without any knowledge ... it promotes hatred... and many non muslims making comments on Islam without knowledge about Islam... ie.. these people promotes hatred.... It's a provocation...

Why JPN cannot have an additional ruling as long as it will comply the requirement of Muslims... within its objective... within laws... within constitution... It didn't interfere with non why need to have another registration department for Muslim...???? Muslims... so what's up man????

If it's because this country is a secular country.. then it prove that you're a secular zealot...
Even in US and UK.. there are some government elements influenced by Christianity. (at least Ester, christmas are holidays) Maybe in Turkey.. yes.. but looks at their human rights record first...

Tha case in Sabah... NRD should talk with the churches there for cert recognition... to settle the problem...

Umar Rentaka said...

Dear Anak Perelih ,

where in my comment did I criticize or even commented on Islam. You can read or what?

I posted a message on what Hinduism has to say about the issue. That is, what is the position of Hindu religion if a man marries a pregnant lady. In which that is commenting on Islam?

JPN, is the Government body that deals with registration of child. On what legal basis did the Department DG came up with this rule? It is ultra vires the constitution. That much is clear.

I proposed that a separate department for Muslims so that they can fairly challenge the rule in Shariah Courts. Because if Muslims take it to the Civil Courts, you will be protesting then, right? You will say, Civil Courts should not interfere with Islamic matters, right?

So, best is let the Muslims have a separate department. And put it under the Shariah Courts. Let Muslims who are not happy challenge it there. You should be happy.

By the way, what about a Criminal Department of Shariah. Let all Muslims accused of theft, rape, murder, etc be charged in Shariah Courts.

Dr. Salman said...

Anak Perelih:

By accusing one of the commenters as a 'secular zealot', you show that you do not have sufficient understanding of what secularism is.

Many, like yourself, subscribe to the erroneous view that secularism equates to averseness to religion or an anti-religion position. But that is untrue; secularism has never been opposed to any religion, or does it prevent anyone from embracing and practicing their religion.

What secularism does imply is that while you are free to go forth and practice your religion while respecting each others' religious beliefs, religion is a personal matter and that one's own faith/belief should not interfere with or be foisted upon others, whether individually or through state mechanisms (law, education etc.). It is that simple.

Azrul Mohd Khalib said...

Anak Perelih..

Allow me to address your points in your response to me (futile as it may apparently be):

In the case reported by Dr. Yati, the father is known and in fact married to the mother. Therefore there is no question as to the identity of the father and yes, his particulars could be obtained. Why then is there a need to put "Abdullah"?

The discrimination I mentioned? It is very naive to think that just because one is a muslim, one does not discriminate the child for the sins of the parents. It happens all the time. Malaysian society, especially the Malay community, is frequently too judgemental and unforgiving in the issues of sex and sexuality.

If JPN is just a government department then why is the directive aimed only at Malay Muslims? JPN is a non-Syariah government agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Why is it acting as if it was an extension of the Syariah family law system? If it is true that, quoting you, "JPN should be careful and follow rules and regulations set by the religion of the client", JPN would have conducted a review of other religions' tenets relating to marriage and issued equivalent directives.

"Everybody knows, human pregnancy is around 9 months" Wow. Nevermind that there are premature births which could be a couple of months early. Nevermind that, in this case, assessment, opinion and judgement was delivered by a non-medically qualified person (i.e. JPN Clerk). By the way, the job of JPN, to remind you, is to record births according to the law (refer Act 152 of Malaysian law and Article 8 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child) not deliver judgement on whether zina was committed.

Your implying that I am less Muslim compared to you is a typical 'holier than thou' attitude which, honestly, I expected anyway and is of no surprise.

By the way, you keep harping that non-Muslims should not comment on issues which affect Muslims as it is meddling in Islamic affairs. Well, I am glad that my non-Muslim brothers and sisters are able to stand shoulder to shoulder with Muslims in fighting against actions which lack common sense, better judgement, dignity, and respect for the rights of children. I welcome their support any day.

Anak Perelih said...

Umar Rentaka..

I did not say that you did criticize or comment on Islam.. I was just explaining to you in response to your statement..
"First of all, there is nothing wrong to state what other religion has to say about a particular event or situation. That's what called inter-faith. Promote better understanding."

That's why I used "we" instead of you... and this "we" includes me too.... "You can read or what?" hehehe

The NRD came up with this ruling is when it was requested by Muslims to record a child's status according to Islamic teachings... as it involved in a latter days on pembahagian harta, marriage... being a wali (a brother will be a wali for the sister if the father is not around/died... and a biological father cannot be a wali for his illegitimate daughter). hope you see the relevant on this ruling...

If there is a saparate department.. than it is more "discriminatory" in your definition than having a saparate ruling... which practically are the page... separating things.. one set for muslim and one set for non muslims...

NRD only provide registration services... and can cooperate both, the civil and shariah court... BTW.. if anything to challenge.. NDR is not the one to be challenged as they only supply the records... and they need to comply with the requirements.. ie requirements of Muslims... Whewre is our rights to practice our religion...??? looks like your out of ideas to counter mine...
BTW.. why's soo emotional complaining on this ruling...???

According to your suggestion... than.. we should have a hudud law.. and an Islamic State.. That's what many Muslims want (not all as there are some secular zealots Muslims around).. but then people like you will protest and never satisfied...

Dr. Salman...

If those who want to impose religious based rulings on others is called "religious zealots" by many of your type.. than why we should not call those who want to impose "secularism" on others as "secular zealots". It's the same thing what..?? Imposing theirs on others...

Maybe you don't know or understand how secularism was born.. and its relations to christians dominance in ruling a country a few hundred years ago(italy - Vatican).. so to impose secularism to Muslims is wrong as the values in Islam and Christianity looking on the daily business such as administrating the country and daily life is very different.... As an "intellect" muslim, who has a title "Dr." you should know better... In a secular declared Muslim country, there are still some elements that has religious (islamic) influences.. as they have to deals with Muslims... at least we got holidays on Hari Raya or Mauludul rasul.. or time off during Jumaat prayers... that'r Islamic related things.. If you're fighting for true secular.. you should be working during hari rayas... or christmas.. or deepavali..... just have hari buruh... Even Turkey, home of the Secular Zealot cannot has 100% secular status...

Commenting other peoples' religion without any knowledge about it is not "respecting each others' religious beliefs"... In this case, does JPN ruling involve other faith besides Muslims???

Friday prayer, hari raya prayer, etc.. involve many others.. not just personal matters.. as it involve the whole muslim community in a place... you can't pray jumaat prayer on your own..


Azrul Mohd Khalib,

In the case of dr. Yati, the parents are Muslims.. and according to Islam, their religion, a biological father who fathered a child out of wedlock cannot nasab the child to his name... and the couple can always inform the NRD clerk about premature birth of the child if the child was not out of wedlock.

On discrimination.. does it happen because other people saw the child's birth cert?? of they knew what happened from the beginning??? It's the society.. not because the NRD ruling or Islamic ruling on this matter... Our people need to change this mindset (discriminatory practices)... not Islam to change its ruling/laws... (except Islam Hadhari where ada had and ada hari). About sex and sexuality.. as Muslims we should follow what Islam had put as guidelines... zina is forbidden.. and these set of guidelines will differentiate between what the animal is doing (having sex) and what us, human Muslim are doing (having sex).... Non Muslims too have their own guidelines.. that's why we have the "marriage" institutions in all societies...

The directive only involves Muslim because Muslim is govern with islamic rulings... even for personal matters things as JPN's job is keeping record of Malaysian citizens... If it was implemented on non muslims.. it will be unfair to them as they are not muslims.. why should they being being covered by a ruling meant for Muslims???

Of course JPN is non shariah department... but they have to service the shariah related departments too (IC, birth cert etc..)... to be fair.. it was not an extension of the shariah family system...

about "JPN would have conducted a review of other religions' tenets relating to marriage and issued equivalent directives".. yes.. they should (but not equivalent directives as it depends on the religion itself...).. if there are demands for them to do so.. they should comply with other religions too.. they should solve the problem happen in Sabah... (http://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/82532)


About pregnancies... I mentioned the normal ones... not including the premature.. as the word explains itself... Pre (before) mature.... In that dr. yati's case.. the couple should mention about it to the JPN people about premature birth... Well, people can lies.. so the JPN was just doing double check to makes sure every informations about the child entered are correct as they might be blamed later... Not to determine the couple had committed zina or not... (not correct correct correct where everything can be kow tow)...

I said, "as a muslim you should know".. not implying that you're "less muslims" compared to me... What kind of attitude is this.. ??? siege mentality??? "I expected anyway and is of no surprise." (using back your own words)

If they know the background of what they are saying/commenting.. why not.. like Prof. Khoo Kay Khim.. " I welcome his comments any days" as he know of what he is talking about... The problem is, those who know nothing.. pakai hentam kromo critisizing/commenting about Islam... they should ask first if they don't know/understand... if not.. they only makes themselves looks like a fool... in their own making... It's like if I don't know anything about AIDS/HIV patients in Malaysia.. I should ask / clarify with you first as the expert/have knowledge.. not just hentam kromo criticizing HIV/AIDA patients...

What do you meant by "the action is lack of common sense"? you people are the one who lacks common sense... "better judgement, dignity, and respect for the rights of" other religions...

tzarina said...

Anak Perelih,

You are wrong to say that these restrictions happen only for Muslims.
First, in the official website of JPN, the requirement for birth certificate is the MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE of the parents. Which means, non-Muslims AND Muslims must be married.

If the child, regardless of religion is born out of wedlock, and the father is not present physically, the entry for father's name is INFORMATION NOT KNOWN. In fact, in some ways, this is WORSE than using Abdullah.

Regardless of religion, a Malaysian woman giving birth for a child whose father is a non-Malaysian, and who is not married, will NOT BE ABLE TO OBTAIN CITIZENSHIP for the child. Which is EVEN WORSE.

So throw this argument you have that these rulings are only for Muslims. EVERYONE is effected by the RELIGIOUS ZEALOTS in the government.

p/s: I would rather be a secular zealot than a religious zealot.

Dr. Salman said...

Dear Mr. Anak Perelih:

Terima kasih kerana membuka ruang untuk perbincangan yang menarik ini.

Tidak menjadi hal sekiranya sekularisma itu berpunca dari 'Western or Christian historic development'. Apa yang penting adalah prinsip (principle) disebaliknya: adakah ianya wajar, adil, saksama, menghormati hak setiap individu, tidak kira Muslim atau lain-lain? Ini dia bernas atau inti-pati yang harus dipersoal.

Kalau kita berpegang bahawa sesuatu yang telah muncul dari tamadun Barat atau pemikiran Kristian tidak patut digunakan atau tiada nilainya, maka terdapat perkara dalam hidup moden kita yang tidak harus dilakukan atau digunakan. Pada masa yang sama, ada juga banyak sumbangan tamadun Timur dan pemikiran Islam kepada sains dan teknologi serta falsafah dan pemikiran masakini. Ini tidak bermaksud ianya harus dipinggirkan! Misalnya, dalam bidang ekonomik, orang Barat bahawa setuju, terima dan mengiktiraf bahawa salah satu penyumbang utama kepada teori ekonomi yang asas adalah seorang pemikir Islam; begitu juga dengan idea-idea tau sumbangan pemikir Islam dalam teori sains fizikal (kimia dan sebagainya). Maka tidak perlu kita mengendahkan mana-mana jurusan fikiran atau falsafah kerana ianya berpunca dari sistem agama atau tamadun yang berlainan dari kita. Yang penting kita kena hitung sama ada prinsip yang menjadi tunjang jurusan pemikiran ini adil atau tidak bagi seluruh masyarakat.

Berkait sekularisma, ianya mengabungkan (i) hormat pada hak asasi manusia agar tidak dipaksa oleh apa-apa elemen luaran dan kebebasan berfikir dan bertindak menggunakan akal dan pendidikan sebaik-baiknya, (ii) penerimaan bahawa manusia berhak memilih dan mengamalkan agama mereka tanpa penindasan tapi pada masa yang sama, agama (tak kira agama Islam atau Kristian atau Hindu) tidak dipaksa keatas sesiapa oleh kerajaan dan mekanisma-mekanismanya, (iii) prinsip semua manusia adalah sama taraf dan adalah 'brothers and sisters' -- tidak kira apa agama mereka atau status sosial mereka.

Maka tidak ada masalah di sini bagi seorang Muslim untuk mengamalkan agamanya dan melakukan kewajipannya kepada Allah SWT di bawah sistem sekularisma. Yang harus diingat adalah dalam masyarakat majmuk seperti masyarakat Malaysia, kita berinteraksi sebagai rakyat satu negara tidak kira Melayu atau Cina, atau orang Islam atau Kristian. Pada pandangan kaca mata dan minda masing-masing, kita adalah rakyat Malaysia yang berpadu, 'brothers and sisters' yang hidup bersama dan berusaha di bumi yang tercinta. Soal agama tidak harus timbul; Ahmad mengamalkan agamanya sebagai Muslim, Chong mengamalkan agama Buddhisma, dan Raju mengamalkan agama Hindu. Ianya suatu perkara yang peribadi ('personal'). Tiada perlu ada situasi di mana unsur-unsur atau perundangan agama dikenakan secara langsung atau tidak langsung terhadap mana-mana pihak, atau situasi di mana satu agama itu dianggap lebih ulung atau unggul dari agama yang satu lagi tidak timbul. Taqwa kita terhadap Allah SWT atau Tuhan adalah isu peribadi. Agama kita tidak harus mempunyai implikasi sosial dalam masyarakat majmuk.

Sebaliknya, satu sistem kerajaan atau pentadbiran yang 'religious' secara semulajadi meneraju dan menetapkan peraturan dan pentadbiran yang berunsur atau diterapkan dari agama ke atas rakyat. Di sistem begini, prinsip-prinsip berikut boleh dikompromi atau boleh tergugat: (i) hak asasi rakyat untuk memilih, memikir dan bertindak sepertimana sesuai bagi diri mereka,(ii) penerimaan bahawa manusia berhak memilih dan mengamalkan suatu agama tanpa ianya dikenakan keatas mereka oleh kerajaan dan mekanisma-mekanismanya, (iii) prinsip semua manusia adalah sama taraf dan adalah 'brothers and sisters' -- tidak kira apa agama mereka atau status sosial mereka.

Ini kerana prinsip pentadbiran adalah berasaskan satu agama tertentu. Walaupun secara jelas kita boleh menghujah bahawa, misalnya, kerajaan Islam adalah bersifat saksama dan adil kepada semua tidak kira agama dan memelihara hak penganut agama lain -- jelas sekali ini juga prinsip sistem sekularisma seperti telah dibincangkan tadi! Prinsip keadilan dan saksama adalah prinsip-prinsip universal dan asas -- tidak perlu adanya sistem perundangan atau pentadbiran berasaskan agama untuk perjuangkannya.

Maka, apa dasarnya mentadbir sebuah negara mengikut undang-undang atau unsur-unsur agama, tidak kira Islam atau Kristian? Seorang Muslim yang hidup di negara yang mengamalkan sistem pentadbiran Kristian mungkin merasa tidak selesa kerana prinsip pentadbiran kerajaannya adalah jelas berdasarkan agama orang Kristian, manakala seorang Kristian yang hidup di negara yang mengamalkan sistem pentadbiran Islam juga turut rasa kurang selesa. Ini berlaku walaupun diberi jaminan bahawa setiap rakyat akan dilayan sama-rata dan adil. Kalau begitu, kenapa terbitkan isu kerajaan berunsurkan agama? Baik adakan kerajaan yang sekular yang tidak memihak mana-mana agama. Inilah asas debat mengenai sekularisma dan religionisma.

Saya pernah melawat seketika di bandar Tabriz, di Iran pada suatu ketika dulu apabila dipelawa oleh seorang kawan (seorang ilmiawan universiti seperti saya). Walaupun sistem pentadbiran berunsurkan Islam diamalkan di Iran, secara peribadi, kawan saya dan saudara-maranya serta ramai lagi masyarakat bandar Tabriz tidak setuju dengan sistem pentadbiran di mana agama dianjur atau diteraju oleh kerajaan. Satu kenyataan yang dibuat oleh rakyat Iran sendiri yang mengejutkan saya. Ini kerana saya beranggapan bahawa rakyat jelata setuju penuh dengan pentadbiran Islam kerana mereka sendiri Muslim.

Maka, dalam mengulung perbincangan ini, saya menyeru kepada para pembaca agar fikir seluas-luasnya mengenai isu-isu falsafah dan pentadbiran seperti sekularisma dan religionisma. Saya mempelawa saudara-saudari baca, kaji, teliti dan fikir dengan kritikal sendiri sifat-sifat serta kelemahan dan faedah sistem sekularisma atau religionisma. Jangan dipesong pemikiran kita oleh golongan tertentu. Itu saja saranan saya.

Sekian.

Serious Shepherd said...

Dr Salman,
I cannot blame Anak Perelih for his misunderstanding of secularism. Maybe what he did was simply referring to Cambridge Dictionary for the definition of secularism and its sample statement.
As for your example like 'penerimaan bahawa manusia berhak memilih dan mengamalkan agama mereka tanpa penindasan tapi pada masa yang sama, agama (tak kira agama Islam atau Kristian atau Hindu) tidak dipaksa keatas sesiapa oleh kerajaan dan mekanisma-mekanismanya' , why don't you look at the Iberian Peninsular before 1492 and check who was in charge of sheltering the Jews from European-wide persecution. Was it a secular state that protected them?

Anonymous said...

Anak luar nikah yg berbin/binti suami ibunya dan bila bernikah maka hukumnya tidak sah sekalipun berwalikan hakim. Jika perkara ini dibiarkan maka anak2 yg lahir kemudian itu jugak anak luar nikah. maka orang islam yg mendiamkan diri dan membiarkan perkara ini berlaku akan menangung azab dan seksa samada semasa mati dan ketika dibangunkan diakhirat nanti... adakah puteri dan azrul seorang islam? atau munafik atau sebenarnya sudah murtad? sebab murtad ini setahu saya boleh jatuh dgn kata2 walaupun tiada niat. jadi adakah menjaga masa depan anak tersebut lebih afdal dari menjaga kedaulatan agama islam dan ajarannya? saya bukanlah dari kalangan orang2 yg memiliki ilmu agama yg tinggi tetapi benda2 asas mcm ni mmg saya ambil tahu dan setahu saya anak yg lahir dari hasil zina hanya boleh dibinkan dgn si suami ibunya jika ianya dilahirkan lebih dari 6 bulan usia perkahwinan kedua orang tuanya jika kurang dari 6 bulan maka hukumnya jadi anak luar nikah. harap betulkan jika salah...

Dr. Salman said...

Saudara Serious Shepherd,

Saya ingin menegas bahawa saya merujuk khususnya kepada prinsip-prinsip sistem sekularisma moden dalam argumen saya.

Perasaan khuatir atau curiga terhadap prinsip-prinsip sistem sekularisma adalah tidak perlu sama sekali, kerana ianya jelas berdasarkan prinsip keadilan, kebebasan dan kesetaraan. Hak-hak kita sebagai orang Muslim adalah terjamin dan terjaga dalam sistem seperti ini, dan begitu juga hak-hak penganut agama yang lain. Lebih dari itu, perasaan curiga dan bimbang tidak timbul bagi mana-mana pihak dan ini memantapkan lagi perasaan patriotik di hati setiap warganegara tidak kira agama atau bangsa kerana setiap satunya dianggap sama rata dan 'brothers and sisters'.

Negara kita dan negara Indonesia yang sekular adalah contoh-contoh mudah dan ketara akan nilai dan kesinambungan sistem pentadbiran yang berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip sekular.

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